Ministerial licensing can also be a way for a denomination to sanction the ministry of someone who does not meet its ordination credentials, but who is nonetheless engaged in an active ministry in a local parish. Both bishops and presbyters are priests and have authority to celebrate the Eucharist. At presently nearly all cardinals are bishops, although several are priests , having been granted a dispensation from being ordained a bishop by the Pope most of these were elevated by the Pope for services to the Church, and are over 80, thus not having the right to elect a pope or have active voting memberships in Vatican departments. Non-denominational is generally used to refer to one of two forms of independence: Anglican nuns may, like their male counterparts, be ordained as well.
Some Eastern Orthodox churches recognize Roman Catholic ordinations while others "re-ordain" Roman Catholic clergy as well as Anglicans who convert. Many Christian churches require ordained clergy to hold a Master of Divinity degree prior to ordination, but may have minimal standards for licensed ministers. However, both the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches recognize Orthodox ordinations. Those who graduate from a Bible College or take a year of prescribed courses are licensed ministers. However, the acceptance of any particular stance on a doctrine or practice for example, on baptism , about which there is not general unanimity among churches or professing Christians, may be said to establish a de facto credal identity. Finally, some denominations license ministers as a way of providing accountability and support to those who perform specific ministries in a church on either a full- or part-time basis. In most Christian denominations that retain the practice of ordination, only an already ordained consecrated bishop or the equivalent may ordain bishops, priests, and deacons. In most Protestant churches, ordination to the pastoral office is the rite by which their various churches: Some have discussed the possibility in Catholicism of having women serve as cardinals or, more realistically in the short-term, as sub-deacons, since they cannot be ordained[ citation needed ]. In the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, ordinations have traditionally been held on Ember Days , though there is no limit to the number of clergy who may be ordained at the same service. Anglican nuns may, like their male counterparts, be ordained as well. That is, the independence may come about because of a religious disagreement or political disagreement. The order of Pastor, the only one of the three orders considered "clergy", is comparable to most other denominations' pastoral office or ordained ministry. Cardinals are considered princes in diplomatic protocol and by the Church, and even if they are not ordained bishops and cannot perform episcopal functions such as ordination, they have both real and ceremonial precedence over all non-cardinal patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops. In some denominations, seminary students or candidates for ordination must first undergo a probationary period as a licensed minister. These denominations license active laypeople who lack ministerial education to serve as pastors of congregations. This, however, does not preclude an identifiable standard among such congregations. Unlike ordination, which is usually considered to be a one-time event, the credentials for licensed ministers may only be valid for a specific period of time. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, ordinations may be performed any day of the year on which the Divine Liturgy may be celebrated and deacons may also be ordained at the Presanctified Liturgy , but only one person may be ordained to each rank at any given service, that is, at most one bishop, one presbyter, and one deacon may be ordained at the same liturgy. The following are positions that are not acquired by ordination: Eastern Orthodox subdeacon being ordained to the diaconate. Licensed ministers are addressed as "Minister" and ordained ministers as "Reverend. The order of deacon comprises lay persons ordained to ministries of service and pastoral care. Education and Training Some religious organizations set different educational standards for licensed ministers and ordained ministers. In the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches and, until , in the Roman Catholic Church , a person has to be tonsured a cleric and be ordained to sundry minor orders prior to being ordained a deacon. Cardinals are simply a large collegiate body who are electors of and the senior-most counselors to the Pope, and are not a fourth order beyond bishop. There are five offices within the Melchizedek Priesthood to which one could potentially be ordained:
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