Lee Kuan Yew , the ex-Prime Minister of Singapore, said during an interview with National Geographic that there were between 50, and 90, casualties,  while according to Major General Kawamura Saburo, there were 5, casualties in total. It is rather an activity involving injustice between nations, rising to the level of criminality because of its disastrous effects upon the common good of international society. Had Japan certified the legal validity of the war crimes tribunals in the San Francisco Treaty, the war crimes would have become open to appeal and overturning in Japanese courts. This set of four photographs were found among Japanese records when British troops entered Singapore.
Both Americans and Europeans fell into the unfortunate habit of seeing WW1 and WW2 as separate wars, failing to comprehend that they were interlaced in a multitude of ways not merely that one was the consequence of the other, or of the rash behavior of the victors after WW1. Japanese scholar and diplomat, Takeo Iguchi, states that it is "[h]ard to say from the perspective of international law that exercising the right of self-defense against economic pressures is considered valid. Aggressive War is not entirely a physical fact to be observed and defined like the operation of the laws of matter. Prior to , Japan had only briefly invaded Korea during the Shogunate, long before the Meiji Restoration, and the invasion failed. Unlike many other major powers, Japan had not signed the Geneva Convention —also known as the Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Geneva July 27, —which was the version of the Geneva Convention that covered the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II. Japan also had a military secret police force within the IJA , known as the Kempeitai , which resembled the Nazi Gestapo in its role in annexed and occupied countries, but which had existed for nearly a decade before Hitler's own birth. After the Rape of Nanking mosques in Nanjing were found to be filled with dead bodies. Simultaneously with the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, Honolulu time , Japan invaded the British colonies of Malaya and bombed Singapore and began land actions in Hong Kong , without a declaration of war or an ultimatum. This set of four photographs were found among Japanese records when British troops entered Singapore. According to this view, those convicted of war crimes are not criminals under Japanese law. Thus, North and South Korea refer to "Japanese war crimes" as events occurring during the period of Korea under Japanese rule. It is estimated that at least one out of every 20 Filipinos died at the hands of the Japanese during the occupation. For example, many of the crimes committed by Japanese personnel during World War II broke Japanese military law , and were subject to court martial , as required by that law. Under the international law of today, there is a possibility the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty was illegal,  as the native populations were not consulted, there was armed resistance to Japan's annexations, and war crimes may also have been committed during the civil wars. War crimes have been defined by the Tokyo Charter as "violations of the laws or customs of war ,"  which includes crimes against enemy combatants and enemy non-combatants. Keenan , the chief prosecutor in the Tokyo Trials, says that the attack on Pearl Harbor not only happened without a declaration of war but was also a treacherous and deceitful act. A small minority of people in every Asian and Pacific country invaded or occupied by Japan collaborated with the Japanese military, or even served in it, for a wide variety of reasons, such as economic hardship, coercion, or antipathy to other imperialist powers. The act comprises the willful, intentional, and unreasonable destruction of life, limb, and property, subject matter which has been regarded as criminal by the laws of all civilized peoples Historian Sterling Seagrave has written that: Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, intended by Japanese military planners to be as comprehensive as possible. In POW camps, this meant prisoners received the worst beatings of all,  partly in the belief that such punishments were merely the proper technique to deal with disobedience. After the Meiji Restoration and the collapse of the Tokugawa shogunate , the Emperor became the focus of military loyalty. Lee Kuan Yew , the ex-Prime Minister of Singapore, said during an interview with National Geographic that there were between 50, and 90, casualties,  while according to Major General Kawamura Saburo, there were 5, casualties in total. The concept of aggressive war may not be expressed with the precision of a scientific formula, or described like the objective data of the physical sciences. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines , when a Moro Muslim juramentado swordsman launched a suicide attack against the Japanese, the Japanese would massacre the man's entire family or village. Roosevelt willingly allowed the attack to happen in order to create a pretext for war, but no credible evidence supports that claim. They decided not to issue a proper declaration of war anyway as they feared that doing so would expose the possible leak of the secret operation to the Americans.
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