Most Christian denominations opposed it, while the United Church of Christ , the United Church of Canada , and the Religious Society of Friends Quakers took a more favourable stand or allowed individual churches autonomy in the matter. In December the U. However, the law prohibits same-sex weddings within the Church of England, which continues to define marriage as between one man and one woman. Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge.
Advocates of both perspectives cited various and conflicting sociological studies in defense of their claims. The law took effect and same-sex couples began marrying in Scotland in December Australia joins Germany and Malta as countries that have legalized same-sex unions in See also footnote 2. For example, the Canadian Psychological Association stated in that "parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the perspectives of one or more of the world religions— Buddhism , Hinduism , Judaism , Islam , and Christianity —and their associated civil practices were often invoked during national discussions of same-sex marriage. Thereafter, South Africa and Argentina were the first African and Latin American countries, respectively, to legalize same-sex marriage. Civil unions have been permitted in Uruguay since , and gay and lesbian couples were given adoption rights in True to their campaign promises, Hollande and the Socialists have pushed through a law that not only legalizes same-sex marriage but also gives gay and lesbian couples the right to adopt children—a provision that has drawn especially strong criticism from French Catholic leaders. In Uruguay became the first Latin American country to legalize same-sex civil unions nationwide; the legislation became effective the following year. Among the more common forms so documented were common-law marriage ; morganatic marriage , in which titles and property do not pass to children; exchange marriage , in which a sister and a brother from one family marry a brother and a sister from another; and group marriages based on polygyny co-wives or polyandry co-husbands. A variety of sexual or quasi-sexual acts, usually including same-sex intimacy, were criminalized in these countries, and the penalties for these acts could be as severe as execution. For example, by the middle of the first decade of the s, a Eurobarometer poll carried out by the European Commission found that four-fifths of the citizens of the Netherlands felt that same-sex marriage should be legal throughout Europe; in a further seven countries Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Luxembourg , Spain, Germany , and the Czech Republic , a majority held a similar view. New Zealand On April 17, the New Zealand Parliament gave final approval to a measure that legalizes same-sex marriage, making the Pacific island nation the 13th country in the world and the first in the Asia-Pacific region to allow gays and lesbians to wed. No reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children occurred in a particular state until that state recognized same-sex marriage. Finland becomes the last of the five Nordic countries to legalize same-sex marriage, joining Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Notably, they found that most cultures expressed an ideal form of marriage and an ideal set of marriage partners, while also practicing flexibility in the application of those ideals. Australia is the 26th country to legalize marriage equality. Brazil Over 3, marriages took place in after same-sex marriage was legalized. More than 25 years of research have documented that there is no relationship between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. Colorado Civil Rights Commission. This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark , where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships. While recent polls show that a majority of French adults support the law, opposition to the change has been intense. United States Eleven years after same-sex marriage was first made legal in Massachusetts, the U. In some such countries, including the United States , consensus on this issue was difficult to reach. The Netherlands In December , the Netherlands became the first country to legalize same-sex marriage when the Dutch parliament passed, by a three-to-one margin, a landmark bill allowing the practice.
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