In the modern world, legal monogamy is popular and is the standard mating system in Western society. The switch to monogamy in Western society was also associated with a somewhat lower degree of child mortality. Many reports of extrapair paternity are little more than quotes based on hearsay, anecdotes, and unpublished findings. This occurred in ancient civilizations, such as those in Egypt, China, and the Middle East, and spread to other civilizations, which included Western Europe.
Rates of extrapair paternity have not been extensively studied in people. In some species extrapair copulations produce over half of the offspring. The Book of Tobias speaks solely of monogamous marriages. Definition Monogamy is defined as marriage with only one person at a time or the practice of having only one mate. A review paper, surveying 67 other studies, reported rates of extrapair paternity, in different societies, ranging from 0. Murdock, of 1, societies from around the world noted, were monogamous; had occasional polygyny; had more frequent polygyny; and 4 had polyandry. In any species, there are three main aspects that combine to promote a monogamous mating system: The switch to monogamy in Western society was also associated with a somewhat lower degree of child mortality. Marriage in the People's Republic of China The founders of Communism determined that monogamous marriage inherently oppressed women and therefore had no place in communist society. Egyptian women had right to ask for a divorce if her husband took a second wife. Despite the human ability to avoid sexual and genetic monogamy, social monogamy still forms under many different conditions, but most of those conditions are consequences of cultural processes. In Israel's pre-Christian era, an essentially monogamous ethos underlay the Jewish creation story Gn 2 and the last chapter of Proverbs. This may suggest that some men abandoned first wives of a low social status and married women of higher status in order to further their careers although even then they lived with only one wife. The standard mating system in America is a relationship that involves only two spouses, and therefore it is considered monogamy. First, they may actually engage in serial monogamy, bonding with a mate for one mating season, but choosing a different mate in a subsequent season. Monogamy may evolve when the cost of acquiring mates is very high, when females have the ability to restrict male behavior, or when offspring survival requires more intensive care than can be provided by a single animal. The median rate of extrapair paternity was 1. Some sages condemned marriage to two wives even for the purpose of procreation Ketubot 62b. Although this made monogamous marriage more common, it didn't help decline the amount of polygynous mating outside of marriage. Close family endogamy are the preferred marriage partners to keep property within the group. Many reports of extrapair paternity are little more than quotes based on hearsay, anecdotes, and unpublished findings. As he spelled out in The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State , The first class antagonism which appears in history coincides with the development of the antagonism between man and woman in monogamian marriage, and the first class oppression with that of the female sex by the male. Laura Betzig argues that in the six large, highly stratified early states, commoners were generally monogamous but that elites practiced de facto polygyny. This supports the hypothesis that the male may remain in the monogamous pairing because his chances of future reproduction are higher than if he leaves. When attempts are made to try to study medical afflictions and their genetic components, it becomes very important to understand nonpaternity rates and pedigree errors. The United Nations joined these efforts in when the General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women , an international bill of rights for women that over nations have agreed to implement. Monogamy is also a rather historically recent development as well.
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