For example, he proposes the terms gynephilic and androphilic to indicate the type of partner preferred regardless of an individual's gender identity or dress. Harry Benjamin said in Certain brain structures in trans women have been found to be similar to cisgender women's as opposed to cis men's, and trans men's have been found to be similar to cis men's, even controlling for hormone use , which can also cause trans people's brains to become closer to those of cis people of the same gender. For example, a trans man is a person who was assigned the female sex at birth on the basis of his genitals , but despite that assignment, identifies as a man and is transitioning or has transitioned to a male gender role; in the case of a transsexual man, he furthermore has or will have a masculine body. It defined transsexualism as "[a] desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex.
Male-to-female transsexualism has sometimes been called "Harry Benjamin's syndrome" after the endocrinologist who pioneered the study of dysphoria. So a gynephilic man is a man who likes women, that is, a heterosexual man, whereas an androphilic man is a man who likes men, that is, a gay man. Harry Benjamin said in The current diagnosis for transsexual people who present themselves for medical treatment is gender dysphoria leaving out those who have sexual identity disorders without gender concerns. Unless homosexual and heterosexual are more readily understood terms in a given context, this more precise terminology will be used throughout the book. True transsexuals feel that they belong to the other sex, they want to be and function as members of the opposite sex, not only to appear as such. Likewise, studies such as Rametti's have found that trans men have male-like white matter patterns even before using hormones , regardless of sexual orientation. Their psychological sex, that is to say, the mind, is female. Beyond Benjamin's work, which focused on male-to-female transsexual people, there are cases of the female to male transsexual, for whom genital surgery may not be practical. Principle 18 of The Yogyakarta Principles , a document of international human rights law ,  opposes such diagnosis as mental illness as medical abuse. What would be the situation after corrective surgery has been performed and the sex anatomy now resembles that of a woman? Another reason for objecting to the term transsexual is the concern that it implies something to do with sexuality , when it is actually about gender identity. Studies have also found that both androphilic and gynephilic trans women's brain function and responses are like cis women's and unlike cis men's, or are intermediate between the two. In , Hirschfeld introduced the German term "Transsexualismus",  after which David Oliver Cauldwell introduced "transsexualism" and "transsexual" to English in and In , Hirschfeld supervised the second genital reassignment surgery to be reported in detail in a peer-reviewed journal, that of Lili Elbe of Denmark. Causes, studies, and theories[ edit ] This section is transcluded from Causes of transsexuality. For instance, it is difficult to decide whether a transman erotically attracted to males is a heterosexual female or a homosexual male; or a transwoman erotically attracted to females is a heterosexual male or a lesbian female. Michael Bailey , and Martin Lalumiere , who she says "have completely failed to appreciate the implications of alternative ways of framing sexual orientation. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl writes ".. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health WPATH , and many transsexual people, had recommended this removal,  arguing that at least some mental health professionals are being insensitive by labelling transsexualism as a "disease" rather than as an inborn trait as many transsexuals believe it to be. Gynephilic transsexed woman refers to a woman of transsexual background whose sexual preference is for women. In such cases, while defining sexual attraction, it is best to focus on the object of their attraction rather than on the sex or gender of the subject. The term, along with gynephilia, is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of transmen and transwomen. Alternatively, I use gynephilic and androphilic to refer to sexual preference for women and men, respectively. Since homosexual, gay, and lesbian are often associated with bigotry and exclusion in many societies, the emphasis on sexual affiliation is both appropriate and socially just. For example, he proposes the terms gynephilic and androphilic to indicate the type of partner preferred regardless of an individual's gender identity or dress.
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