Some states appear to apply "catch-all" statutes for former registrants moving into their jurisdiction, requiring registration and public posting of information, even when the person has completed their original registration period. In , a murder registry was proposed in Rhode Island and an animal abuser registry was proposed in Pennsylvania. Texas has not released anyone in the 15 years since the program was started. Ohio has a publicly accessible registry for people convicted five or more times of drunken driving.
The Supreme Court of the United States has upheld sex offender registration laws twice, in two respects. Sex offender registries in the United States consist of federal and state level systems designed to collect information of convicted sex offenders for law enforcement and public notification purposes. It will be managed by the New Zealand Police and information will be shared between the Police, Child, Youth and Family , the Department of Corrections , the Ministry of Social Development , and the Department of Building and Housing —government agencies which deal with child safety. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predator , regardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator". Second tier offenders would have to wait 25 years before requesting their removal, but third tier offenders will remain on the registry indefinitely. Public Indecency , in violation of C. This proposed register has received support from both the ruling National Party and the opposition Labour Party. In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: Like the Australian and British registers, the New Zealand sex offenders register will not be accessible to the general public but only to officials with security clearance. However, in other localities, the complete lists are not available to the general public but are known to the police. This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. New Zealand[ edit ] The New Zealand government has plans to introduce a sex offenders register by the end of According to a Department of Justice study, 5. In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. Sex offenders' spouses and children can also face harassment and financial hardship as a result of their loved one's sex offender status. In New York specifically, kidnapping and unlawful imprisonment are registerable offenses only if the victim is under 17 and the offender is not a parent of the victim. Some states have disclosed some of Tier I offenders,  while in some states all Tier I offenders are excluded from public disclosure. Kansas has publicly accessible registries of people convicted of both serious drug offenses and people convicted of crimes involving a weapon. Level Tier I, Level II, and Level III offenders, information is usually accessible related to that level information being more accessible to the public for higher level offenders. Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. In general, in states applying risk-based registry schemes, low-risk Tier I offenders are often excluded from the public disclosure. Thus, identical offenses committed in different states could produce very different outcomes in terms of public disclosure and registration period. Sometimes it takes them a while to come forward and disclose those offenses. However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack of public access. In , a murder registry was proposed in Rhode Island and an animal abuser registry was proposed in Pennsylvania. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents.
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